4-FA is popular in the Netherlands, where it is mainly used because of its specific impact (77% of users) and not because of its legal status (18%).  4-FA has been illegal since May 2017.  The subjective effects of 4-fluoroamphetamine include euphoria, which some find similar to the effects of MDMA and amphetamine, increased energy (stimulation), mood brightening, feelings of warmth and empathy, excessive speech, bruxism, and appetite suppression (anorexia). The general plan of action in the first hours mainly includes empathic effects, which fade with increasing stimulation in the following hours. [medical citation required] (2015) Takotsubo syndrome caused by 4-fluoroamphetamine. 77.1% used the drug because of its specific effects, not because of its legal status. Most participants reported for the first time that they took it around 2013. Nugteren-van Lonkhuyzen, J. J., Van Riel, A. J., Brunt, T. M. and Hondebrink, L.
(2015). Pharmacokinetics, pharmacodynamics and toxicology of new psychoactive substances (NPS): 2C-B, 4-fluoroamphetamine and benzofuranes. Alcoholic addict. 157, 18–27. doi: 10.1016/j.drugalcdep.2015.10.011 (2017) Acute toxic effects associated with 4-fluoroamphetamine (1975) Comparison of 4-chloro-, 4-bromine and 4-fluoroamphetamine in rats: drug levels in the brain and effects on serotonin metabolism in the brain 4-fluoromethampetamine (4-FMA) is a stimulant associated with methamphetamine and 4-fluoroamphetamine. It has been reported to be sold as a synthetic drug, but little is known about its pharmacology or toxicology.  It was first established on the basis of legal highs sold in Japan in 2006, and it became illegal in Japan in 2008 to sell or possess it for distribution purposes (but not only for personal use).  It was initially reported that it was included as an ingredient in part of the range of party pills sold internationally by the Israeli company Neorganics from about 2006, but this later turned out to be false and this ingredient was eventually identified as the closely related compound 2-fluoributtamamine.  (2012) Detection of the synthetic drug 4-fluoroamphetamine (4-FA) in serum and urine. (2016) Cardiovascular toxicity, cerebral haemorrhage and mortality after 4-fluoroamphetamine Wijers, C. H., Van Litsenburg, R. T., Hondebrink, L., Niesink, R.
J. and Croes, E. A. (2017). Acute toxic effects associated with 4-fluoroamphetamine. Lancet 389:600 doi: 10.1016/S0140-6736(17)30281-7 Participants: A practical sample of 249 lifetime users of 4-fluoroamphetamine was recruited via the Internet. Design: Data from the Drug Information and Monitoring System (DIMS) were used to study the emergence of 4-fluoroamphetamine in the Dutch pharmaceutical market. An online questionnaire was used to examine its usage patterns and impacts. (2015) Pharmacokinetics, pharmacodynamics and toxicology of new psychoactive substances (NPS): 2C-B, 4-fluoroamphetamine and benzofuranes.
Results: 4-fluoroamphetamine was first encountered in the Dutch pharmaceutical market between 2007 and 2009 and was mainly sold as amphetamine or ecstasy (MDMA). These misrepresented drug samples declined as MDMA and amphetamine markets recovered after a period of shortage, while intentionally purchased 4-fluoroamphetamine samples showed an increase. The results of the survey showed that 4-fluoroamphetamine is mainly used [77.1%, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 72.0-82.3] for its specific effects and not for its legal status (17.7%, 95% CI = 10.7-22.1). The subjective effects of 4-fluoroamphetamine were compared with those of amphetamine and MDMA. The subjective effect values for 4-fluoroamphetamine were between amphetamine and MDMA. Conclusions: The stimulant 4-fluoroamphetamine is becoming increasingly popular in the Netherlands, perhaps because of its subjective action profile, which lies between amphetamine and MDMA. Keywords: 4-fluoroamphetamine; amphetamine; MDMA; new psychoactive substance; questionnaire; reported effects. Objectives: To study the temporal pattern of the appearance of a new psychoactive substance (4-fluoroamphetamine) on the Dutch drug market, as well as its consumption patterns and effects. (2016) Acute dilated cardiomyopathy and myocardial injury after taking 4-fluoroamphetamine and modafinil in combination. 4-Fluoroamphetamine (4-FA) is a synthetic molecule of the amphetamine family.
Molecules of the amphetamine class contain a phenethylamine nucleus with a phenyl ring, which is bound to an amino group (NH2) by an ethyl chain with additional methyl substitution in Rα. Amphetamines are alpha-methylated phenethylamines. 4-fluoroamphetamine contains one fluorine atom on R4 of its phenyl ring and is a fluorinated analogue of amphetamine. Brazil, Canada (due to amphetamine analogue status), China, France, Germany, Hungary, Israel, Italy, Netherlands, Poland, Slovakia, Serbia and United Kingdom. Measurements: Samples containing 4-fluoroamphetamine were extracted from the DIMS database for further study. The online questionnaire examined the consumption patterns, consumption patterns and subjective effects of 4-fluoroamphetamine, amphetamine and 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA). Fischbach, P. (2017). The role of illicit drug use in the sudden death of adolescents. Cardiol.
Jung 27, S75–S79. doi: 10.1017 / S1047951116002274 Tolerance to many effects of 4-FA develops with prolonged and repeated use. As a result, users must administer ever larger doses to achieve the same effects. After that, it takes about 3-7 days for the tolerance to be halved and 1-2 weeks to return to the baseline (in the absence of additional consumption). This is the time it takes to reduce tolerance to stimulant effects. Tolerance to entactogenic effects may take longer. 4-FA has cross-tolerance with all dopaminergic stimulants, which means that after consuming 4-FA, all stimulants have a reduced effect. Location: Dutch drug-related websites and social media. James, D., Adams, R. D., Spears, R., Cooper, G., Lupton, D. J., Thompson, J. P., et al.
(2011). Clinical characteristics of mephedrone toxicity have been reported to the UK`s National Poisons Information Service. Emerg. Heft J. 28, 686–689. doi: 10.1136/emj.2010.096636 (2012) Fluoroamphetamine isomers detected in forensic cases in Denmark. Until 2013, it was more common in the Netherlands for the drug to be intentionally purchased as misrepresented. It was among the four most common NPS detected in samples submitted to Dutch drug testing facilities. The others were 2C-B, methoxetamine and 5-APB/6-APB. Quote: from Sousa Fernandes Perna EB, Theunissen EL, Dolder PC, Mason NL, Hutten NRPW, Toennes SW, Kuypers KPC and Ramaekers JG (2018) Safety Profile and Neurocognitive Function Following Acute 4-Fluoroamphetamine (4-FA) Medicine. In front of.
Pharmacol. 9:713. doi: 10.3389/fphar.2018.00713 The release of corticosterone is stimulated. 4-Chloroamphetamine is also stronger in this regard. The release may not be associated with the serotonergic activity of 4-FA. At least 12 European countries discovered the drug in 2010 through forensic cases and drug testing for users. 4-fluoroamphetamine = 4-FA; 4-FMP; AFP; parafluoroamphetamine; Anecdotal reports from Molly`s Mosquito have described the subjective effects of 4-FA as a moderate MDMA-like entactogenic onset during the first few hours of the experiment, which then gradually switches to traditional amphetamine-type stimulation (for a total duration of about 6 to 8 hours) with residual effects that may persist for a few hours thereafter. [Citation needed] It is commonly described as a cross between amphetamine and MDMA. The effects are cleaner and more entractogenic than amphetamines, but certainly not as entactogenic as MDMA. 4-Fluoroamphetamine has a very short history of human use and is very unusual, so little is known about its pharmacological effects, as is the case with many other synthetic drugs. Tracy, D.
K., Wood, D. M., and Baumeister, D. (2017). New psychoactive substances: types, mechanisms of action and effects. BMJ 356:i6848 doi: 10.1136/bmj.i6848 Neurotoxicity does not increase in the series of parahalogenated amphetamine derivatives, although the releasing power of serotonin follows this trend.